**Abstr
act**

As AI-driven language interfaces (such as c hat-bots) become more integrated into our lives\, they need to become more versatile and reliable in their communication with human users. How can w e make progress toward building more “general” models that are capable of understanding a broader spectrum of language commands\, given practical co nstraints such as the limited availability of labeled data?

\nIn this talk\, I will describe my research toward addressing this ques tion along two dimensions of generality. First I will discuss progress in “breadth” — models that address a wider variety of tasks and abilities\, d rawing inspiration from existing statistical learning techniques such as m ulti-task learning. In particular\, I will showcase a system that works we ll on several QA benchmarks\, resulting in state-of-the-art results on 10 benchmarks. Furthermore\, I will show its extension to tasks beyond QA (su ch as text generation or classification) that can be “defined” via natural language. In the second part\, I will focus on progress in “depth” — mod els that can handle complex inputs such as compositional questions. I will introduce Text Modular Networks\, a general framework that casts problem- solving as natural language communication among simpler “modules.” Applyin g this framework to compositional questions by leveraging discrete optimiz ation and existing non-compositional closed-box QA models results in a mod el with strong empirical performance on multiple complex QA benchmarks whi le providing human-readable reasoning.

\nI will conclude w ith future research directions toward broader NLP systems by addressing th e limitations of the presented ideas and other missing elements needed to move toward more general-purpose interactive language understanding system s.

\n**Biography**

Daniel Khashabi is a postdoctoral researcher at the Allen Institute for Artificia l Intelligence (AI2)\, Seattle. Previously\, he completed his Ph.D. in Com puter and Information Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania in 2019. His interests lie at the intersection of artificial intelligence and natur al language processing\, with a vision toward more general systems through unified algorithms and theories.

\n X-TAGS;LANGUAGE=en-US:2022\,February\,Khashabi END:VEVENT BEGIN:VEVENT UID:ai1ec-22395@www.clsp.jhu.edu DTSTAMP:20230605T114910Z CATEGORIES;LANGUAGE=en-US:Seminars CONTACT: DESCRIPTION:Abstract\nRecursive calls over recursive data are widely useful for generating probability distributions\, and probabilistic programming allows computations over these distributions to be expressed in a modular and intuitive way. Exact inference is also useful\, but unfortunately\, ex isting probabilistic programming languages do not perform exact inference on recursive calls over recursive data\, forcing programmers to code many applications manually. We introduce a probabilistic language in which a wi de variety of recursion can be expressed naturally\, and inference carried out exactly. For instance\, probabilistic pushdown automata and their gen eralizations are easy to express\, and polynomial-time parsing algorithms for them are derived automatically. We eliminate recursive data types usin g program transformations related to defunctionalization and refunctionali zation. These transformations are assured correct by a linear type system\ , and a successful choice of transformations\, if there is one\, is guaran teed to be found by a greedy algorithm. I will also describe the implement ation of this language in two phases: first\, compilation to a factor grap h grammar\, and second\, computing the sum-product of the factor graph gra mmar.\n\nBiography\nDavid Chiang (PhD\, University of Pennsylvania\, 2004) is an associate professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engin eering at the University of Notre Dame. His research is on computational m odels for learning human languages\, particularly how to translate from on e language to another. His work on applying formal grammars and machine le arning to translation has been recognized with two best paper awards (at A CL 2005 and NAACL HLT 2009). He has received research grants from DARPA\, NSF\, Google\, and Amazon\, has served on the executive board of NAACL and the editorial board of Computational Linguistics and JAIR\, and is curren tly on the editorial board of Transactions of the ACL. DTSTART;TZID=America/New_York:20221017T120000 DTEND;TZID=America/New_York:20221017T131500 LOCATION:Hackerman Hall B17 @ 3400 N. Charles Street\, Baltimore\, MD 21218 SEQUENCE:0 SUMMARY:David Chiang (University of Notre Dame) “Exact Recursive Probabilis tic Programming with Colin McDonald\, Darcey Riley\, Kenneth Sible (Notre Dame) and Chung-chieh Shan (Indiana)” URL:https://www.clsp.jhu.edu/events/david-chiang-university-of-notre-dame/ X-COST-TYPE:free X-ALT-DESC;FMTTYPE=text/html:\\n\\n\\n**Abstr
act**

Recursive calls over recursive data are w
idely useful for generating probability distributions\, and probabilistic
programming allows computations over these distributions to be expressed i
n a modular and intuitive way. Exact inference is also useful\, but unfort
unately\, existing probabilistic programming languages do not perform exac
t inference on recursive calls over recursive data\, forcing programmers t
o code many applications manually. We introduce a probabilistic language i
n which a wide variety of recursion can be expressed naturally\, and infer
ence carried out exactly. For instance\, probabilistic pushdown automata a
nd their generalizations are easy to express\, and polynomial-time parsing
algorithms for them are derived automatically. We eliminate recursive dat
a types using program transformations related to defunctionalization and r
efunctionalization. These transformations are assured correct by a linear
type system\, and a successful choice of transformations\, if there is one
\, is guaranteed to be found by a greedy algorithm. I will also describe t
he implementation of this language in two phases: first\, compilation to a
factor graph grammar\, and second\, computing the sum-product of the fact
or graph grammar.

\n\nDavid Chiang (PhD\,
University of Pennsylvania\, 2004) is an associate professor in the Depart
ment of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame.
His research is on computational models for learning human languages\, par
ticularly how to translate from one language to another. His work on apply
ing formal grammars and machine learning to translation has been recognize
d with two best paper awards (at ACL 2005 and NAACL HLT 2009). He has rece
ived research grants from DARPA\, NSF\, Google\, and Amazon\, has served o
n the executive board of NAACL and the editorial board of Computational Li
nguistics and JAIR\, and is currently on the editorial board of Transactio
ns of the ACL.

\n
X-TAGS;LANGUAGE=en-US:2022\,Chiang\,October
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